Tapioca Hard Pellets are recognized in EU countries as a feed ingredient for more than 45 years. The two main reasons for the use of tapioca by the feed industry are:
Tapioca hard pellets delivered to EU, are mainly used in the swine feeds as source of high energy by mixing with soy meal at the ratio of 85% tapioca hard pellet and 15% soy meal resulting an equivalent nutritive value of corn.
The quality of tapioca hard pellets is under the control of the Thai Industrial Standards Institute of Ministry of Industry.
Tapioca was firstly originated from countries in Southern American such as Peru, Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. It was believed that Peru and Mexico had been growing tapioca for the past 4,000 and 2,100 years respectively. Around the 17th century, Portugal and Spanish had brought tapioca to a few Asian countries namely India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Philippines and Malaysia. There was no concrete evidence to prove when tapioca was introduced into Thailand, but believed to be around the same period as Sri Lanka and Philippines during 1786-1840.
Tapioca was first grown in the Southern part of Thailand and was not successful due to land raining season. Before World War II, tapioca was grown as inter-crop in most rubber plantations in the Southern Thailand. However, after World War II, tapioca plantation was moved to the Eastern part of Thailand as rubber plantation proved to be a better revenue earner than tapioca. In 1961, tapioca plantation in the Eastern part of Thailand constituted 85.58% of the country's total tapioca acreage.
However, in the late 50's and early 60's, the by-product of starch extraction was found as a valuable constituent for feed production and processed market potential in the EU countries. Realizing the value and increasing markets of the paste by-products, Thailand started the production on tapioca chips in 1958
During 1967-1968, in an attempt to reduce transportation costs of chips, pellet production technology was introduced. Pelletizing tapioca helped reduce space requirement for transportation and also save transportation cost.
With the increased demand for tapioca pellets in EU, Thailand's tapioca plantation was expanded and it was extended further to the Northeast. In 1990, approximately 63% of Thailand's tapioca production was from the Northeast and 22.1% from the East. The production output jumped from 1.7 million tons in 1961 to 20.5 million tons in 1990. In 1999, Thailand's annual tapioca roots production was 15.8 million tons.
Approximately 70% of the tapioca roots is used in the process of tapioca industries producing tapioca fibers and pellets while the remaining 30% is used for flour and starch production.
|Raw Fibre:||5% max|
|Hardness:||12 kg force per Kahl hardness tester|
|Meal:||8% max. (1 mm sieve)|
|Starch||65% (By ECC method)|